Caste is derived from Spanish word ‘caster’ which means either group, either your breed, either your race, either your lineage. But In Spanish and Portuguese they were interpreted cast as ‘jati’ but actually Cast is not as ‘jati’ in context of Nepal. Caste means Varna. In ancient time the caste was divided according to ‘gunas’.
ACCORDIING TO VAGWAT GITA ‘CHAPTER 18.4’.” O Arjun, All the different qualities of work of the various castes in society namely the Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and shudra are determined by their innate mode of their nature (GUNA’S).
ACCORDING TO SHANTIPARWA, MAHABHARATA” There is no superior caste. The beings created by him where only divided into castes according to their attributes (gunas). ”
ACCORDING TO “VAGWAT GITA”:- All people in the world are mixture of the three Gunas (RAJAS, TAMAS, and SATVA).
NATURE OF RAJAS GUNAS: – passionate, always in active, excitement in everything, emotional, angry and not stable.
NATURE OF TAMAS GUNAS: – lazy, non –interactive, dullness, love to sleep, non -awareness.
NATURE OF SATVA GUNAS: – intelligent, balanced, active, smart, decision maker and stable.
In the percentage of guans they were considered as Varna. Guans are considered as nature or attributes. In ancient period guans / nature was considered as what kind of occupation they should be practiced and maintain social order. In comparison of today context it was useful for the interview for example if someone came to interview than human resources management checked the criteria of skills, knowledge, behavior, personality etc. than they decide the which kind of post that person was suitable for that position.
The combination of guans Rajas 20% and sattva 10% and tamas 70% they was considered as Sudra. The nature of sudra they was attached with materialistic things, they were less intelligence, lazy. in ancient period they was working as service provider, worker, helpers to compare sudra in cooperates post they play role as laborers, workers, daily wages.
The combination of guans Rajas 40% and sattva 35% and tamas 25 % they was considered as Vaishya. The nature Vaishya of they was an almost equal combination of all guans, all-rounder. in ancient period they was working as merchant, traders ,farmers, money lender compare Vaishya in cooperates post they role play as senior executive, mid-level manager.
The combination of guans Rajas 70% and sattva 20% and tamas 10% they was considered as Kshatriya. The nature Kshatriya of they was passionate, aggressive, risk taker. In ancient period they was working as soldiers, fighters, in cooperates post they role play as senior manager, vice-president.
The combination of guans Rajas 20 % and sattva70 % and tamas 10 % they was considered as Brahmin. The nature Brahmin of they have knowledge of Vedic, intelligent, decision maker. In ancient period they were working as teacher, priest, and leader. In cooperates post they role play as managing director, CEO, president.
Varna is not decided by birth. Varna decided by guans. Varna was automatically changed when proportion of guans are changed. Sage vayasa the writer of Mahabharata. He was born a Sudra caste, fisher women was her mother name satyavati. He was son of Sudra but by his work he was considered as Brahmin. For example: – sage Valmiki writer of Ramayana. He has vast knowledge of Vedas. But he bought up in Sudra caste hunter family. It was also rumerd that he was a goon once in his lifetime. By his hard work and his intelligence he achieves the status of Brahmin. Because of some corrupt people they were Varna as surname and that considered Brahmin son’s as Brahmin.
According to rid Vedic and Atharvaveda Vedic they describe lord Vishnu’s head was Brahmin and hand was Kshatriya and stomach was Vaishya and legs was Sudra. Vishnu represent group of society and its process .all varans are equally important for society.
Varna system is divided in 4 divisions
Brahmin, 2. Kshatriya, 3. Vaishya 4. Sudra
In the context of Nepal. Caste system started in 1854 AD, legalized the cast system by Jung bahadur rana he goes to visit Europe then he came Nepal. He introduces Muluki Ain. In that time muluki Ain considered as constitution.it was rutted in Hindu law and codified social practices. It is done to include entire Hindu and non-Hindu population in a single hierarchic civic code. In 1963 Muluki Ain was replaced by new legal code all the discrinatory laws on the ground of caste were ceased. It is very vast subject to be known by its origin. There are many theories about the cast division one group say it’s because of Manuscript some says its cleverness of Brahman which came from aboard and rolled by dividing indigenous people. Some says cast system implemented to separate the class to work in same cast.
Although brhaman is seen benefited by caste system than others in ancient period barman are immune to not be executed to death penalty for the heinous crime while other are treated by law. Caste system has developed by Brahmans to keep them in the top in system politically and financially by saying they have only right in education and the king also has to follow the rules according to them.
Dalits and other marginalized caste people still struggle to get proper education and constitutional rights as they are kept out from power hub of nations. There are many castes which are still not defined under Varna system. They struggle to get their rights because of the caste system the main the disappointed community are general community without caste in Varna system which are not getting any benefits of reservation and social acceptance like: – kaystha is one of them they are considered sudra in Bengal, Kshatriya/Brahman in Bihar and Nepal. They are several courts proceeding February 23, 1926, in Patna high court and Calcutta high court said Bengali kaystha has omitted upanayan ceremony and use their surname as das instead of Varma and have their rituals but Bihari kaystha follows a rules similar to Brahmin but they are not considered barman as Varna system so it is contradictory to allocate kyatha in barman so theory keep place in khayastrya class but in Nepalese society they are classified in high cast and left from reservation but they are educated and stayed in minority. Caste system creates differences among societies. Untouchability very much eradicated but there are some anti-social elements still practicing it.
In this 21st century world is global village so we should treated every human being are same and stop identifying from color of the skin, height of the body, look of face or any physical disability, by occupation and caste of people.
As whole caste system is not a concept of ruling but also a demand of society. Some time it also provide a way to devlop the certain area or circumstances with a certain rule and regulation. Caste system also help society to run their life style smoothly because we have the diffret varities of work and empoly to preform the diffrent task which make normal life easier and portable. As coin have two parts sometimes it also provides rituals hierarchy and discrimination in society.
At last best way to define caste system is it is exchange of goods, service and economy according to political, social and economical demand.
(Karna is the BALLB student in Kathmandu School of Law.)